Personal Communications

Note that personal communications are not included in the reference list.

  • - Personal communication (e.g. emails, lecturer information, unpublished lecture notes) to support arguments is generally not included in academic writing. However, sometimes, for example in reflective writing, you may be required to do so.  
  • - Statements made in video recordings (DVDs, YouTube, etc...) should be referenced as Audio Visual Media.
  • - Page numbers may not be required for direct quotes from web references, lectures or recordings, as there may be no (official) pages. 
  • - Check with your lecturer before referencing personal communications.

Paraphrase:

(Interviewee First Initial. Second Initial. Surname,  personal communication, Month Day, Year)

Direct quotation:

(Interviewee First Initial. Second Initial. Surname,  personal communication, Month Day, Year) 

In text example

 Reference list example

 In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
 
When JNI lecturer D. Dobbs (personal communication, February 2, 2013) highlighted the issues on human development, it became clear that not only ….
     
 In-Text Citation (Quotation):
 
(D. Dobbs, personal communication, February 2, 2013) stated: “Gestalt is a form of therapy that…”
 
 

 

Note that personal communications are not included in the reference list.

 

Email

  • - Personal communications such as email are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data.  

 

(Sender First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

In text example

 Reference list example

 In-Text Citation (Quotation):

An email (S. Johnson, personal communication, August 12, 2020) confirmed . . .
 
     
 

 

Note that personal communications are not included in the reference list.

 
 

Interview

  • - Personal interviews are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data. Cite them in text only. 

 

(Interviewee First Initial. Second Initial. Surname,  personal communication, Month Day, Year)

In text example

 Reference list example

 In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
 
The company’s CEO confirmed during an interview that . . . (C. Castillo, personal communication, May 11, 2019).
     
     
 In-Text Citation (Quotation):
 
During an interview, CEO Christian Castillo stated that “profits have . . .” (personal communication, May 11, 2019).
 

 

Note that personal communications are not included in the reference list.