Referencing - Databases with proprietary or original content

In general, APA style does not require that you reference a database, however the exception to this is when a database contains original or proprietary information that is generally not available elsewhere.

This page provides examples of how to reference databases that contain original, proprietary content. Use the tabs below to navigate to specific examples.

Include the date retrieved when a database updates the content regularly

Include the URL to the resource in the Library database or to the home page of the database

American Herbal Pharmacopoeia

  • - American Herbal Pharmacopoeia publishes a collection of monographs on specific herbs. These monographs have multiple editors.
  • - Follow standards used for a book with editors, two editors, or three or more editors, as appropriate.

Example

Editor Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Editor Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Eds.). (Year). Monograph title. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia. URL

In text example

 Reference list example

 In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Romm & Upton, 2012, p. 2)
 
 
 
 

Romm, A., & Upton, R. (Eds.). (2012). Blue cohosh root and   rhizome. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia. 

https://library.torrens.edu.au/ld.php?content_id=908864

 

 

 

For further information see:

Cochrane Review

  • - Similar to an online journal article, just use the publication year as the volume

Example

Author Surname, First Initial, Second Initial. (Year). Article title: subtitle. Cochrane Database of Systematic 
Reviews, year
(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

In text example

 Reference list example

 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Strobel et al., 2022, para. 4)
     
In-Text Citation (Quotation):
 
(Strobel et al., 2022, para. 4)
 

Strobel, N.A., Chamberlain, C., Campbell, S.K., Shields, L., Bainbridge, R.G., Adams, C., Edmond, K.M., Marriott, R., & McCalman, J. (2022). Family-centred interventions for Indigenous early childhood well-being by primary healthcare services. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2022(12). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012463.pub2

Joanna Briggs Database

  • - Joanna Briggs Database publishes Best Practice Information Sheets, Consumer Information Sheets, Evidence Summaries, Recommended Practices, Systematic Review Protocols, Systematic Reviews and Technical Reports.
  • - Follow format used for a journal article when referencing Best Practice Information Sheets, Systematic Reviews and Technical Reports. 
  • - For Systematic Review Protocols, Consumer Information Sheets, Evidence Summaries and Recommended Practices give the type of resource in square brackets

 

JBI Evidence Summary or Recommended Practice Example

Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle [Evidence Summary]. Database name. URL

Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle [Evidence Based Recommended Practice]. Database name. URL

 

JBI Best Practice Information Sheets & Systematic Reviews

Author, A.A. (Date). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), page numbers of the whole article. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/xxxx

In text example

 Reference list example

 Evidence Summary

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Bellman, 2017)

 

Evidence Based Recommended Practice

 In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Joanna Briggs Institute, 2022)

 

Systematic Review

In-text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Sandy-Hodgetts & Watts, 2015, p. 257)

 

 

 

Best Practice Information Sheet

In-text Citation (Paraphrase):

(Joanna Briggs Institute, 2022, pp. 2-3)

 

Bellman, S. (2017). Warfarin use: Residential care facilities (older person). [Evidence Summaries].Joanna Briggs Institute EBP Database. https://joannabriggs.org/

 

 

Joanna Briggs Institute. (2022). Acupuncture: Managing hot flashes for people with cancer. [Evidence Based Recommended Practice]. Joanna Briggs Institute EBP Database. https://joannabriggs.org/

 

Sandy-Hodgetts, K., & Watts, R. (2015). Effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy/closed incision management in the prevention of post-surgical wound complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 13(1), 253-303. https://doi: 10.11124/jbisrir-2015-1687 

 

 

Joanna Briggs Institute. (2022). Experiences of nurses caring for involuntary migrant maternal women. Best Practice: Evidence Based Information Sheets for Health Professionals, 24(5), 1-5.

 

Merck Manual

Online version
 
The professional online version of the Merck Manual should be formatted as an entry in an encyclopedia or reference work. The manual is updated regularly so a retrieved date should be included in the reference. 
 

Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article or chapter title. In MSD manual professional edition. Merck & Co, Inc. Retrieved date, from URL

 

Print or e-book version

The print version of the Merck manual is referenced as chapters in a book with separate authors. 

Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article or chapter title. In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Surname (Ed.), Book title: Subtitle (pp. page range of article or chapter). Publisher. URL (if ebook)
 

 

In text example

 Reference list example

 Online example:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Ansari, 2022, Etiology, para. 1)

 

 

 

Print or eBook example:

In-text Citation (Paraphrase):

(O'Connor, 2018, Diagnosis, para. 2)

 

Ansari, P. (2022). Acute abdominal pain. In MSD manual professional edition. Merck & Co, Inc. Retrieved December 16, 2022, from https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/acute-abdomen-and-surgical-gastroenterology/acute-abdominal-pain

 

O'Connor, R., (2018). Critical care medicine: Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In R.S. Porter et al. (eds.). (20th ed.). The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy. Wiley-Blackwell. https://www-r2library-com.torrens.idm.oclc.org/resource/detail/0911910425/ch0068s1745

 

eMIMS

 

eMIMS (Online)

Title of reference entry, (Year). In Title of Reference source. Retrieved date, from URL of homepage if not freely available from the internet

eMIMS (Software)

Title of reference entry, (Year). In Title of Reference source (Version No.). [Format]. Publisher.

In text example

 Reference list example

eMIMs online

Drug monograph:

(Panadol, 2022)     

    
Interactions checker:
 
(Mesalazine ↔ Mercaptopurine monohydrate, 2023) 
 
 
eMIMS (Software)
 
Drug monograph:
(Panadol, 2022)

 

 

Panadol. (2022). In eMIMS. Retrieved December 16, 2022, from http://www.emims.com.au

 

 

Mesalazine ↔ Mercaptopurine monohydrate. (2023, Nov). In eMims Interaction Checker. Retrieved November 22, 2023, from http://www.emims.com.au

 

 

Panadol. (2022). In eMIMS (Version 5.0). [Computer Software]. MIMS Australia.

 

Natural Medicines

  • - Include as much information as is available. Information that is not available, simply omit.
  • - If you have many citations from this database from the same year,  alphabetize the entries by the title and call them 2011a, 2011b, and so forth, in both the reference list entries and the text citations.

In text example

 Reference list example

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Therapeutic Research Centre, 2023, Overview, para. 2)
     
 
Interactions checker:
 
(Therapeutic Research Centre, Primrose ↔ Gilas results summary)

Therapeutic Research Centre. (2023). Ayurveda [Monograph]. NatMed. Retrieved April 27, 2023, from https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/databases/food,-herbs-supplements/professional.aspx?productid=1201

 

Therapeutic Research Centre. (2023). Primrose ↔ Gilas. NatMed Interaction Checker. Retrieved April 27, 2023, from https://naturalmedicines-therapeuticresearch-com.eu1.proxy.openathens.net/#P

 

nPod

  • - nPod publishes information on herbs and related commercial products.
  • - Make sure you include the retrieval date as information on nPod can change quite frequently

Example

Title of reference entry, (Year). In Title of Reference source. Retrieved Date of retrieval, from URL of homepage if not freely available from the internet

In text example

 Reference list example

 In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

According to the product details recorded in nPod Metagenics ThyroCalm is used in Chinese medicine... ("Metagenics ThyroCalm 60t", 2018)
 
 

 

Metagenics ThyroCalm 60t. (2018). In nPod. Retrieved September 5, 2018, from  https://www.npod.com.au.

 

WGSN

WGSN publishes original trend and forecasting reports that are only available through the WGSN database. Follow the APA style guidelines for referencing a report and also include information about the database within the reference list entry. 

Example:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of report. Publisher name. https://doi.org/xxxx OR URL

 

 

 

In text example

 Reference list example

 In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

 (Bang & Cortesi, 2023, p. 3)
 
 

Bang, M., & Cortesi, E. (2023). Sustainability bulletin: January 2023. WGSN. https://www.wgsn.com/fd/article/6391cd39995aec17a447658c#page3

 

IBISWorld

IBISWorld publishes original company and industry research reports. Follow the APA style guidelines for referencing a report and include information about the database. 

 

Example:

Author, A. (year). Title of report. Publisher name. https://doi.org/xxxx OR URL

In text example

 Reference list example

 In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Ledovskikh, 2023, SWOT, para. 3)
 
 

Ledovskikh, A., (2023). Domestic Airlines in Australia. IBISWorld. https://my-ibisworld-com.torrens.idm.oclc.org/au/en/industry/i4902/industry-at-a-glance#swot-in-the-industry    

 

StatPearls

  • - Point of care clinical support tool for health practitioners.

Example

Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Monograph title. StatPearls. URL

 

In text example

 Reference list example

 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

(Sapra & Bhandari, 2023, para. 3)                                                                   

 

 

 

 

  Sapra, A., & Bhandari, P. (2023). Diabetes. StatPearls. Retrieved May 17, 2024, from                                                 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551501/