Websites & webpages

  • - Not all internet sources have title and year, author or pages - these elements can be difficult to find. In general, include the same elements, in the same order, as you would for a reference to a fixed-media source, and add as much information as needed for others to locate the sources you cited.
  • - Include the name of the website or organisation that hosts a source in the reference.
  • - Use the home page URL to avoid more specific addresses which may change, except when citing articles from sites such as media sites or government agencies, from which specific articles may be hard to locate.
  • - The date an electronic resource was retrieved is only needed if the content you are citing is likely to be changed or updated.
  • - Specific formats can be included in brackets immediately after the title.

Example

Personal or Corporate Author. (Last update or copyright date; if not known, put n.d.). Title of specific document. Host website/Organisation. URL of specific document

In text example

 Reference list example

In-text citation (paraphrase or direct quotation): 

Yet others (Fitch, 2005) maintained that...
 
(Author Surname, Year)      OR
(Author Surname, Year, page or paragraph number [if available])
 
 In-text citation (paraphrasing multiple sources):     

(Bastyr University, 2007; Fitch, 2005)
 
(First Author Surname, Year; Second Author Surname, Year; Third Author Surname, Year)
 
Note: the Semicolons between authors/texts
 

 Example of an in-text direct quotation with paragraph number:

"We provide access to unique leadership experiences and educational resources. . . " (Bastyr University, 2007, para. 4).

Include page numbers or paragraphs where possible.

Personal author example:

Fitch, P. (2005). Recovering body and soul from post traumatic stress disorder. pamelafitch-rmt.com/docs/soul.pdf

 Corporate author example:

Lawson, J. F. (2019). The impacts of plastic on Indonesian migratory birds. Department of Conservation. https://www.doc.govt.nz/reports/birds/indonesiaplastic/

 

No date

  • - If no date is given, put n.d. in parentheses.

Example

Author. (n.d.). Title of specific document. URL of specific document

In text example

 Reference list example

 In-text citation (paraphrase or direct quotation): 

According to the Australian Institute of Sport... (Australian Institute of Sport, n.d. ).

 Example of a direct quotation:

"Research suggests that athletes with an integrated lifestyle are more likely to achieve their sporting goals, cope better with stress and injury, and have more confidence in what the future will hold after sport." (Australian Institute of Sport, n.d.).

 Example

Australian Sports Commission (n.d.). Australian Institute of Sport. www.ausport.gov.au/ais/

No author

  • - Where no author is provided in a Webpage or Website, begin the reference with the name of the organisation (in which case the organisation is the author). If there is no author or organisation, begin the reference with the title of the page.

Example

Title of page. (Publication date). URL web address.

In text example

 Reference list example

 In-text citation (paraphrase or direct quotation):

(The Zhou or Chou Dynasty approx. 1100-221 BC, 2005).

 
 

 

 Example

The Zhou or Chou Dynasty approx. 1100-221 BC. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.shennong.com/eng/history/zhou.html

 

 

Blog posts

  • - If citing the original blog post use include "Blog post" in square brackets (minus quotation marks). Likewise if you are citing a reply or a comment made to the original post, write "Blog comment" in square brackets.
  • - Use the screen name for the author of a post if the author has adopted one.
  • - The name of the blog itself is not part of the reference, although you can often see it in the URL. The title is not italicised.

 

Example

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Author screen name {as it appears on the blog}. (Year, Month Day {of post}). Title of specific post [Blog post]. URL of specific post

In text example

 Reference list example

In-text citation (paraphrase): 

The issue of sustainability in architecture can be addressed by using recycled materials (katzsj, 2009).

(Author Surname OR Screen name, Year)
Note that the screen name of this author only is in lower case.
     
 Direct quotation example:
 
“The vast majority of us have perfectly robust immune systems, and the notion that having a busy, modern lifestyle can compromise the immune system is greatly overblown” (Newsome, 2011) – so, marketing is required to overcome this fact.
 
(Author Surname OR Screen name, Year)

References:

katzsj (2009, February 11). Water bottles as a design tool [Blog post]. http://katzsj.wordpress.com/2009/02/11/waterbottles-as-a-design-tool/

 

Newsome, B. (2011, March 10). Immune to science [Blog post]. http://www.theage.com.au/opinion/blogs/scepticscience/immune-to-science-20110309-1bn9m.html

 

joachimr. (2019, November 19). We are relying on APA as our university style format - the university is located in Germany (Kassel). So I [Comment on the blog post “The transition to seventh edition APA Style”]. APA Style. https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/transition-seventh-edition#comment-4694866690